Lesson Plan for “An Old Man at the Bridge” by Ernest Hemingway

Hello all,

I posted my lesson plan for Ernest Hemingway. I hope you can get some benefits from it. I really enjoyed writing it, and i hope you do.

  • This lesson will be taught to Bisha University English undergraduate students (level 6) in Saudi Arabia. Lesson plan is a smart method that successful teachers use to manage their classrooms activities, time, and make sure that they cover their learning goals.


  1. Overview

Ernest Hemingway was an American fiction writer and journalist. He was born July 21, 1899. He published six novels and won the Nobel Prize in Literature. His literary works are considered classics of American Literature. He died July 2, 1961. In “Old Man at the Bridge,” he introduces his story with an old sitting on the side of the road. This old man wants to leave due to the Spanish Civil War. The narrator, a scout, meets with the old man and finds him too tired. They have a short conversation. The old man is worried about his animals he left behind in his native San Carlos. The scout tries to help and reassure him, but he discovers that “there [i]s nothing to do about him” (Hemingway 1). So, the scout leaves due to his mate’s request.

I have selected this story to teach undergraduate students in Saudi Arabia a moral lesson through the conversation between the scout and the old man and through the relationship between the old man and his animals. They will also learn the elements of setting, character, and themes. They will gain interpretive skills and understand that the story is not only a story but is also a life lesson from which one can benefit.


  1. Identify purposes/goals

The primary goals of teaching this story are that by the end of lesson, students will be able to:

  • Read critically the story of “The Old Man at the Bridge.”
  • Identify the story’s elements such as setting, characters, theme, and author.
  • Discuss the main points of the story.
  • Create at least three questions about the story.
  • Search online to find additional resources about the story.
  • Evaluate each other’s literary works in a critical way.
  • Identify the moral lesson of this story, which is the importance of behaving humanely with other people.
  • Use a blog to post their perspective about the story.
  • Analyze the story or any of its characters.



  • Methodology
  • Delivery method: This lesson will be delivered online.

Online learning is an appropriate method to teach 40 students. It will help them to focus on the story and work with each other cooperatively throughout the lesson. Additionally, it is a flexible method that appeals to their attention since the current generation prefers learning through using technology over learning in the traditional classroom.

  • Materials: Computers with online access

Students will need an account in Google so they can use Google Docx, Google Slides, Google Forms for an online quiz, and a WordPress blog account for the assignments. These materials will enable students to share their thoughts, edit and comment on their work, and discuss the story easily and effectively.

  • Learning method: Group discussion

This method helps students to consider others’ viewpoints and enables students to learn from each other. Moreover, it is useful for encouraging shy students to participate. It urges them to speak English more often, which is useful since English is a second language for them.

  1. Instructional Strategies
Strategies Method Rationale Time
Introduction Before the lesson, I will send slides through Google Slides that include an attractive summary of the story. Introduction is rationally suitable for the following reasons:

1- It helps to narrow students’ focus to the main points of the lesson.

2- It prepares students for what they are supposed to learn by the end of lesson.

Students usually need 20 minutes to read the introductory materials.
Instructional Guide and Questions At the end of the lesson slide, students will be asked to read the story and think about what the story is about in order to prepare themselves to write their answers for the following questions during the class time. They will be posted to help students focus on the main points of the story:

1-   What does the old man do at the bridge? Why does he not move?

2-   Who is the narrator? Writes a short analysis of him.

3-   Who is the scout?  What is his role in the story?

4-   Why do you think the author repeat “the old man was still there” three times?

5-   The old man tells the scout that he is worried about something. What is it? How does this reflect the moral lesson?

6-   Write a paragraph about “sense of duty” based on your understanding of the story.

7-   Where does the story take place and when?

8- Who was Hemingway? Write a short paragraph about him.

The final slide will include this note: The class will take place on Friday, 5 May 2017, from 12:00PM to 3:00PM.

CAUTION: do not write the answer before the beginning of the class.


It is beneficial for the following reasons:


1- It provides directions and questions to guide students as they read.

2- It helps students identify the goals of the lesson.


3- It emphasizes the major theme of the story.


Students will need 15 minutes to read this story and 30 minutes to think about the questions.
Activity Group discussion:

1- Create eight groups of five students each who will share the same document to discuss the story, share their answers regarding the questions, chat with each other, and edit each other’s answers.

Caution: each group will answer one of the questions identified above and create at least three orienting questions.

2- The teacher will comment on each group’s work and discuss their questions and answers with them.


3- Each group will be asked to find resources about the story (videos, analyses, etc.) and share them with other groups.

4- The teacher will create a document that consists of the work of all the groups and share it with the whole class to enable discussion of the lesson and the groups’ questions, answers, and online resources.


1- This is a good method to test and challenge groups’ knowledge about the story and to provide them an opportunity to discuss the lesson’s content.

2- It improves their writing and typing skills in English.

3- It enhances their critical thinking through raising orient questions.

1-    It is a smart method to check the progress of their learning.


1- It provides students with new information about the story and new thoughts.

2- It improves their skills in searching online.

1- It is helpful way to create a cooperative environment in which students will:

a- View other groups’ work.

b- Discuss the questions, answers, and resources.

c- Critique other groups’ work.

d- Share their thoughts.

e- Enhance their own critical thinking.


Students will need 50 minutes to practice this activity.









During the 50 minutes identified above.



(10 minutes break)

30 minutes to find and share online resources.


1 hour











(10 minutes break)

Assessment Online quiz: Students will take a short quiz (multiple choice format) using Google Forms. This is a good method to help students review what they learned about the lesson. This will take 15 minutes.
Assignment Students will be asked to choose one of the following assignments and post it on their blog:

1- Write a short paragraph about their perspective of the story.

2- Write a short analysis of the story or any characters from it.

This method will help them to know more about digital humanities and share their ideas and opinions. This assignment will take probably 30-40 minutes.



My Final Project

For my final project, I will develop my personal website. Creating website is my dream since I was 14 years old. I like writing codes even it is a tough work, but it is the work that I would love to do. Therefore, I use “Noteped++” in creating codes and edit them. It is a great tool because you can use it to write code and to view your coding online. What I mean is that you can use it as document and if you need to check your code, you can click and watch your web-page. In addition, I signed in “BawkBox.com” to create a useful contact web-page. “BawkBox.com” is a free web-page that can help you to establish your web. This is what I have in my mind until know, and I am still working and doing my best to make my personal website more beautiful and professional than the oldest one (mini-personal web-page).

To sum up, I believe that all of the mini-projects that I had done are beneficial, and each one has its own features that gives them their significance in digital humanities. However, I believe that when I come back home, I will use all I know about “HTML” to establish a useful website for the English department in Bisha University because there we just have a general web-page for the whole university. To clarify this, in Bisha University, the administrators work hard to develop the usage of technology, and they just have a web-page that tells the news of the university, but they do not have for example a web-page about the English department. In other words, there is no website that tells which courses are going to be taught or tells about our faculty. I think it is important to have this website because students should know about their professors and know their experiences and education.

Things that I Have Learned from Digital Composition, Literature, and Pedagogy Course

For a long time, my dream was to become a professional teacher in computer science, but for some reason I did not achieve this dream, and I have remained an amateur. However, enrolling in the Digital Composition, Literature, and Pedagogy course has enabled me to develop my skills and become more professional in my computer use. I will never forget the moment when my professor taught us how to create an HTML website. It was as if I were in a dream because of the way that my professor use to teach us about HTML was brilliant. He wrote the code on “Stackedit” and then “Stackedit” showed us the image of the code. I have never thought about the idea of coding becoming an image or text. Moreover, this course has developed my skills in digital writing, taught me how to teach an online literature class, and changed my point of view toward computers.

In digital writing, I have become familiar with code programs such as <h>, <p> and how to close them like </h>, </p>, and when to use them. In other words, I can now create my own website. In the past, I used websites that provide you with styles, and the only thing I had to do was choose; now, I can write code by myself through Github. Moreover, “Stackedit” has been the most beneficial website for me because it helps me to check my code and makes it easy to edit it and save it in case I want to finish it later.

This course has also provided me with two different ways of writing: multilinear (Twine) and interpretation (Voyant). Multilinear-text is “a function of several variables that is linear separately in each variable” (Wikipedia). This method has presented a new challenge because it gives me more views in presenting, for instance, a story. More deeply, creating a background for each passage has been the biggest challenge for me. However, this experience has made me more knowledgeable about creating CSS and attaching sound tracks to the passages. Ultimately, Twine is a tool that I will use not only in my future classes, but also for my sons because it appeals to their attention. Through using Voyant for a project, I increased my interpretation skills. I learned that Voyant can help me to skim many texts, see the differences between them, and give an initial interpretation. Moreover, I learned the importance of studying the most frequently repeated words because it tells or helps me to predict what the major theme of the text is. Generally, my digital writing has sharply improved, and my critical thinking has too. Also, it has changes my perspective about computer as an instrumental into a “philosophical discourse”. According to Ted Underwood in “Digital Humanities: Theorizing Research Practices”; an expert professor in Digital Humanities and how it changes the new paradigm shift of learning, research, and scholarship, we as humanist scholars think about a computer as a machine instead of “philosophical discourse” because “data mining” gives us different collections or “tools” (Underwood 1375). Therefore, this course particularly Voyant has changed my thoughts about computer and see it as what Underwood told us “philosophical discourse”.

Through Omeka, I have learned new concepts about computers, including exhibits and metadata. As I mentioned above, I used to create websites easily through free websites, but with Omeka, I learned how to collect items for specific objects like mine—Cinderella. Through the materials that my professor provided to us, I learned to avoid using illegal materials and how to differentiate between public domain, fair use, and so forth because a digital scholar must be serious about his/her sources. I now know how to establish a useful exhibit that has a logical interpretation. For example, with Cinderella, I realized that I can have a historical one. Metadata also was a challenge for me because I was not sure about the differences between the creator and publisher. However, my professor’s priceless feedback helped me to work through this problem successfully. All in all, Omeka has provided me with a new method of creating website or personal archive that I can choose whether or not to make it private or personal.

The pedagogy project was a significant experience for me because I am a lecturer at a new institution. There, we used to get the syllabus from the university. In this course, I gained more knowledge about how to create a lesson plan, teach an online course with depth, and distribute each activity with suitable time for completion. Therefore, when I come back home, I will teach my colleagues to use this kind of technology, and how much is it important to use them in classrooms. Basically, we have technology equipment in Bisha University, but we do not have professional users. What I mean is that teachers there do not think about the necessity of using it. They should think that this time is the suitable time to teach lessons by using technology because it appeals new generations and makes it easy for them to understand.

In short, this course has sated my desire to become a professional computer teacher even though I am literature major. I will translate this knowledge to the reality of Bisha University and develop the education technology there. It has prepared me well and encouraged me to register for a Video Games course next fall.

Works Cited

“Multilinear Map-Wikipedia.” Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia, Wikimedia Foundation, Inc, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Multilinear_map. Accessed 1 May 2017.

Ted, Underwood. “Digital Humanities: Theorizing Research Practices.” Literary Theology an Anthology, edited by Julie Rivkin and Michael Ryan, 3rd ed., Wiley Blackwell, 1998, pp. 1373-1379. Print.

Asma’s Pedagogy Mini-Project

When I was thinking about my Pedagogy mini-project, I found myself thinking about my work at Saudi Arabia. I am a lecturer there, and I love teaching poems, stories, and creative writing. Thus, I decided to create a lesson plan for a poem or story. I am planning to write my plan. I will have a list of schedules that includes topic, analysis topic, pre-instructional Strategies, and assessment. Also, I will insert some useful activities that depend on computer such as blogs, or PowerPoint to help me to make the lesson clear for my students.

Writing Projects and my University in Saudi Arabia

“Digital Humanities and the First-Year Writing Course” by Olin Bjork is interested to me because it hits what my university in Saudi Arabia has suffered from. More deeply, he states that there are three factors that controls or limits the usage of computers and writing projects in colleges; “the technical proficiency of undergraduates and instructors, the timeframe of a single semester or quarter, and the availability of hardware and software” (Bjork). In my university, we have computers in classrooms and computers lab, but the problem is that our faculties do not know how to use it. What I mean is that they did not train or prepare well to use these computers. Also, my university has few professional professors that they can use these computers; however, there is another problem which is some students do not have internet or computers in their homes. Therefore, I think he is right, and I always think about this issue when I come back to my university and teach there.

Response to: Stephen Brier’s “Where is Pedagogy?

I found Stephen Brier’s article is very interesting and raise my thoughts. One of them is when he states that ‘“Digital humanities is a diverse and still emerging field that encompasses the practice of humanities research in and through information technology, and the exploration of how the humanities may evolve through their engagement with technology, media, and computational methods’” (Brier). I think he is right because now the social media like twitter, Instagram, or snapchat particularly snapchat has its own features that enable its user to create his/her own story. This story could be written or spoken by the user, and there are many followers who loved listening to those snapchat narrators. In fact, I love to listen to those narrators. Hence, I was thinking about his ideas of extending DH classes particularly when he says:

“If we are willing to broaden our definition of digital humanities beyond academic research and related issues of academic publication, peer review, and tenure and promotion to encompass critical questions about ways to improve teaching and learning, then CUNY’s various digital pedagogy projects and strategies offer an alternative pathway to broaden the impact of the digital humanities movement and make it more relevant to the ongoing and increasingly beleaguered educational mission of contemporary colleges and universities” (Brier).

In Saudi Arabia, we have many narrators of snapchat, and people starts to love to listen to their stories. They told historical stories and their daily life stories. So, I got this question, and I would love to listen to your opinions and answers about whether we as English Literature future professor consider these media like snapchat as a real literature? Can we teach these narrators in Literature classes or DH? What is the standard that we can use to judge whether this DH is Literature or not?

Come Near !!!

To My Best friend in Saudi Arabia……


Friend, Friend, Friend,

Come from there,

Comer here,

Come near,

To the heart of your dear.


Friend, Friend, Friend,

Let’s hear,

Songs so clear,

Singing Love you forever.


Friend, Friend, Friend,

You are larkspur,

Looking quite dapper.


Friend, Friend, Friend,

Please, be closer, rosier,

Be happier and deeper,

To the heart of your lover.


Friend, Friend, Friend,

Take this promise.

You will always be sheer, laughter,

To the soul of your sister.